luni, 13 august 2018

Lectia 14 - Fotografia jurnalistica

Nume prerechizite numai pentru lectia 14:

Paul Nadar (Nadar's son)
Alexander Black
William Warnecke
Sam Shere
Kurt Hutton (Huebschmann)
Erich Salomon
Felix H. Man
(Hans Baumann)
Alfred Eisenstaedt
Tim Gidal
Bert Hardy
Leonard McCombe
Peter Stackpole
Thomas D McAvoy
W. Eugene Smith
Eliot Elisofon
William Vandivert
Margaret Bourke-White
Robert Capa (Endre Ernő Friedmann)
David Douglas Duncan
Larry Borrows
Alfonse de Meyer
Edward Steichen
Yousuf Karsh
George Platt Lynes
Arnold Newman
Philippe Halsman
Richard Avedon

Jerry Uelsmann


(WARNING: this list stops at 1980)



Teorie: Fotojournalismul este o forma distincta de jurnalism care creaza si utilizeaza imagini vizuale pentru a istorisi stirile. Se distinge de alte forme de fotografie prin urmatoarele trasaturi:

Temporalitate: imaginile isi gasesc intelesul intr-un context de evenimente recent semnalate.
Obiectivitate: situatia prezentata de imagine este cinstita si conforma cu evenimentul pe care il prezinta, atit ca continut cit si ca ton.
Narativitate: imaginile se combina cu alte elemente ale stirilor astfel incit faptele sa poata deveni relatabile catre observator la un nivel cultural cuvenit.

O fotografie jurnalistica trebuie sa indeplineasca urmatoarele canoane:

1. un eveniment trebuie sa poate fi consemnat pe deplin intr-un numar de cel putin 70 de poze

2. pozele trebuie sa fie impecabile tehnic si peste 8MP fiecare

3. in principiu, dintre acestea, doar 5 poze vor fi drastic selectate de fotograf si prezentate editorului, clar si conform formulei LIFE:
- o poza introductiva
- o poza de la distanta medie
- o poza de aproape sau un portret sau o poza de interactiune
- o poza "semnatura"
- o poza "clincher" (adica un fel de sfirsit inteligent al povestirii)

4. fiecare fotografie trebuia sa fie insotita de un text explicativ (caption sau cutline). In trecut, datorita modului precar de reproducere foto, prin gravare, apoi halftone, pozele fotojurnalistice aratau destul de jalnic, intinat sau mult prea schematic, iar textul explicativ descria ce ar trebui sa se inteleaga din imagine. In fotoziaristica moderna, textul trebuie sa lamureasca conditiile de obtinere si de existenta ale fotografiei, conform cu regula 5W1H: Who? Where? When? What? Why? How? De regula textul explicativ al unei poze jurnalistice este primul care se citeste de pe o pagina de ziar, dupa titlurile mari. Este foarte concis si respecta standardele de claritate, acuratete si cuprindere. Este compus din doua propozitii declarative, impecabile sintactic, gramatical, ortoepic si ortografic, utilizind cea mai corecta limba scrisa in intregul ziar (fiindca este posibil sa fie chiar singurul text citit cu atentie de toata lumea). Prima propozitie, exprimata la timpul prezent, lamureste cadrul povestirii din imagine (cine, unde, cind), iar a doua explica, intregeste imaginea si sustine ce s-a intimpla de fapt (ce, de ce si cum). Daca cumva o poza a fost manipulata, atunci textul explicativ trebuie sa contina cuvintul cheie "fotografie ilustrativa". Cel putin numele fotografului trebuie sa fie specificat la sfirsitul textului explicativ.


Iata citeva exemple de casete-text:

New York City Police Officers check subway cars at Columbus Circle on Friday, Oct. 7, 2005. Security in the city's mass transit system has been increased following yesterday's announcement of a specific terrorist threat to the subway system. (AP Photo/John Smock)

A school bus is towed following a collision with a car on the Major Deagan Expressway (I-87) in the Bronx on Friday, Sept. 30, 2005. There were no major injuries reported among the 42 students and eight adults on board from St. Joseph School in the Bronx. (AP Photo/John Smock)

General Pervez Musharraf, President of Pakistan, addresses the audience at the Columbia University World Leadership Forum in New York on Friday, Sept. 16, 2005. In town for the United Nations World Summit this week, several heads of state are speaking at the university . (AP Photo/John Smock)

(L-R) New York City Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg, New York City Schools Chancellor Joel Klein and Deputy Mayor for Education Denis Wolcott at PS 40 in Brooklyn on Thursday, Sept. 22, 2005, announce the highest scores for New York City public school 4th graders on state math exams since standards-based testing began four years ago.

9 Nov. - Cairo, Egypt - A woman displays her ink-stained finger after voting. Egyptians took to the polls today for the first round of parliamentary election. President Hosni Mubarak and his ruling National Democratic Party (NDP) have allowed several opposition groups, most notably the formerly banned Muslim Brotherhood party, to be among the 5,000 candidates campaigning for more than 400 seats. Photo credit: John Smock/SIPA

9 June, 2005 – Kabul, Afghanistan -- A child severely burned by a car bomb yesterday receives care at the Indira Gandi Institute of Child Medicine. Doctors are struggling with limited medicines to treat the growing number of child victims, whose injuries are often compounded by other medical problems such as poor nutrition that diminish a child's ability to heal. John Smock/SIPA.

Musician Phil Stewart uses software by Ejamming Inc. to play online with musicians (pictured on the screen) in other parts of New York City at the DigitalLife Expo on Friday, Oct. 14, 2005. The three-day DigitalLIfe Expo features cutting-edge technology for work, home and play. (AP Photo/John Smock)

Esquire magazine Editor-in-Chief David Granger, left, and Publisher Kevin O'Malley, right, pose with actress Jessica Biel at her unveiling as the magazine's 2005 'Sexiest Woman Alive' on Thursday, Oct. 6, 2005, in New York City. (AP Photo/John Smock)




Felix H. Man

















Alfred Eisenstaedt


































W. Eugene Smith




























































Robert Capa













Richard Avedon












































Eseu: discutati textual, in nu mai mult de o pagina, necesitatea sau lipsa necesitatii notelor explicative insotitoare la fotografia jurnalistica


Exercitiu: efectuati o singura fotografie care sa fie clar o imagine fotojurnalistica in sensul celor discutate la acest capitol. Elaborati nota explicativa si expuneti-va clar parerea cu privire la necesitatea ei.


Rezolvare:
Pentru eseu: vezi teoria
Pentru exercitiu: